Precise needle puncture of the kidney is a challenging and essential step for successful percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Many devices and surgical techniques have been developed to easily achieve suitable renal access.
Multiple paths and technologic advances have been proposed in the field of urology and minimally invasive surgery to improve PCNL puncture. The most relevant contributions, however, have been provided by the applicationofmedical imaging guidance, new surgical tools,motion tracking systems, robotics, and image processing and computer graphics. Despite the multiple research paths for PCNL puncture guidance, no widely acceptable solution has yet been reached, and it remains an active and challenging research field.
The 3D puncture system is an motion tracking based solution for percutaneous puncture. It guides the surgical needle from skin puncture site towards the renal calix, according to information retrieved by surgical instruments (catheter and needle) that integrate electromagnetic motion tracking sensors, without the need of medical imaging.